Mengenal IP Public dan IP Private

IP (Internet Protocol) Address merupakan alamat pengenal standar untuk semua perangkat di jaringan yang menggunakan protokol jaringan TCP/IP (contoh: jaringan Internet) agar semua komputer yang terhubung di dalamnya dapat saling berkomunikasi. Terdapat 2 jenis IP Address yang dapat diberikan kepada komputer dalam jaringan: IP address public dan IP address private.

IP Address Public

IP public adalah alamat IP yang digunakan dalam jaringan global Internet serta penggunaan dan alokasinya diatur oleh InterNIC untuk menjamin penggunan IP address ini secara unik. Karena kelas IP address ini digunakan di dalam jaringan internet maka IP ini bisa diakses melalui jaringan internet secara langsung. Perangkat yang menggunakan IP public, seperti web server, mailserver, DNS server, game server ataupun perangkat lain dapat diakses dari jaringan manapun di dunia ini yang terkoneksi ke internet. Untuk dapat menggunakan IP public, suatu organisasi biasanya dapat mendaftarkan diri ke salah satu ISP (Internet Service Provider).

IP Address Private

Disebut IP address private karena IP ini hanya dikenali dan bisa diakses dari jaringan local saja dan tidak bisa diakses melalui jaringan internet secara langsung tanpa bantuan router yang mempunyai fitur NAT. IP private digunakan untuk jaringan lokal agar sesama komputer dapat saling berkomunikasi, misalnya digunakan di jaringan sekolah, kantor, toko, warnet dan sebagainya. Perangkat yang terhubung ke jaringan lokal seperti printer, komputer, laptop, smartdevice menggunakan biasanya akan mendapatkan IP address private. Agar IP private dapat terhubung ke internet maka diperlukan router yang mempunyai kemampuan untuk melakukan NAT (Network Address Translation) agar semua device dengan IP private dapat terkoneksi ke internet dengan menggunakan IP public yang terkoneksi langsung ke Internet). Meskipun sudah terkoneksi ke internet, IP private tetap tidak bisa diakses langsung dari jaringan internet.

Dalam penggunaannya IP private tidak perlu didaftarkan ke pihak otoritas sebelum digunakan karena penggunaan IP private telah diatur, dialokasian dan distandarkan oleh IANA (Lembaga yang mengatur penggunaan dan pengalokasian IP address di seluruh dunia) dalam dokumen RFC 1918. Alokasi IPv4 private sesuai standar internasional ketika Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) telah menunjuk Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) untuk mengalokasikan IPv4 untuk jaringan private, yang diterbitkan dalam dokumen RFC 1918 sebagai berikut:

24-bit block – 16,777,216 ( 24 bits 8 bits single class A network
20-bit block – 1,048,576 ( 20 bits 12 bits 16 contiguous class B networks
16-bit block – 65,536 ( 16 bits 16 bits 256 contiguous class C networks


Sedangkan untuk IPv6 diterbitkan dalam RFC 4193

  48 bits 16 bits 64 bits
fd00::/8 fd xx:xxxx:xxxx yyyy 18,446,744,073,709,551,616



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